As you know, already in 1929, cosmologists from North America found that the universe is growing in volume. Or speaking in astronomical language, has a constant expansion. The author of the metric expansion of the universe is the American Edwin Hubble, who derived a constant value characterizing the steady increase in outer space.
So how old is the universe? Ten years ago it was believed that her age is within 13.8 billion years. This estimate was obtained from the cosmological model, which is based on the Hubble constant. However, to date, a more accurate answer has been received about the age of the Universe, thanks to the painstaking work of the staff of the ESA Observatory (European Space Agency) and the advanced telescope “Planck”.
Scanning of outer space by the telescope “Planck”
The telescope was launched into active work in May 2009 to determine the most accurately possible age of our universe. The functionality of the “Planck” telescope was aimed at a long space scanning session with the aim of making the most objective picture of the radiation of all possible stellar objects obtained as a result of the so-called Big Bang.
A long scanning process was carried out in two stages. In 2010, preliminary research results were received, and in 2013 the final result of the study of outer space, which gave a number of very interesting results, was summed up.
The result of ESA’s research work
ESA scientists published interesting materials in which, on the basis of collected data from the “eye” telescope “Planck” data, it was possible to clarify the Hubble constant. It turns out that the speed of expansion of the universe is equal to 67.15 km per second per parsec. To make it clearer, one parsec is a space distance that can be overcome in 3,2616 of our light years. For greater visibility and perception, it is possible to imagine two galaxies that repel each other at a speed of about 67 km / s. The figures for space scales are scanty, but, nevertheless, this is an established fact.
Thanks to the data collected by the telescope “Planck”, it was possible to clarify the age of the universe – it is 13.798 billion years.
This research work of ESA led to a refinement of the content in the universe of the mass fraction of not only “ordinary” physical matter, which is 4.9%, but also of dark matter, now equal to 26.8%.
Along the way, the “Planck” telescope revealed and confirmed the existence in the far outer space of the so-called cold spot, which has a super low temperature, which does not yet have any scientific explanations.
Other ways to estimate the age of the universe
In addition to cosmological methods, it is possible to know how many Universes the years are, for example, by the age of the chemical elements. This will help the phenomenon of radioactive decay.
Another way is to estimate the age of the stars. Estimating the brightness of the oldest stars – white dwarfs, a group of scientists in 1996 received the result: the age of the universe can not be less than 11.5 billion years. This confirms the data on the age of the universe, obtained on the basis of the refined constant Hubble.